Study Guide for Intro Cell Bio

  • Describe some characteristics of science
  • Outline the history of the development of scientific practices
  • Describe the role of controls and variables in an experiment
  • Define matter and energy and explain how these two interact in biological systems
  • Describe the flow of energy in the biosphere
  • List some of the key elements involved in the cycling of energy and matter through the biosphere
  • Discuss the kinds of molecules that carry biological information, and how information is encoded in them
  • Describe the way information is stored and transmitted in biological systems
  • Provide examples of cellular responses to environmental conditions
  • Understand the premises and goals of systems biology
  • Identify the essential elements of life and the role of trace elements
  • Describe the simplified atomic model
  • Explain the role of valence electrons in determining the behavior of an atom
  • Describe the major kinds of chemical bonds
  • Discuss the properties of carbon that make it well suited as the basis of life
  • Recognize the main classes of organic compounds and functional groups
  • Describe the physical and chemical properties of water and their cause
  • Discuss some of the implications of water’s properties on life processes
  • Explain the concept of pH and buffering
  • Recognize the different mono- and disaccharides
  • Explain how polysaccharides form
  • Discuss how structure and function relate for carbohydrates
  • Describe the characteristics of lipids
  • Describe the structure of lipids
  • Explain why phospholipids form bilayers
  • Relate the structure of phospholipids to cell structure and function
  • Describe the structure of an amino acid
  • Discuss the formation of peptide bonds
  • Explain the hierarchical nature of protein structure
  • Provide examples of protein function following structure
  • Describe what an enzyme is and what it does
  • Discuss the ways enzymes are regulated
  • Explain the kinds of enzyme inhibition and example scenarios
  • Describe the general structure of nucleic acids
  • Discuss how nucleic acids encode information
  • Discuss the reasons for limits to cell size
  • Compare eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
  • Describe the cell theory
  • Identify the main structures of a eukaryotic cell and their function
  • Describe the components of the cytoskeleton and their functions
  • Discuss the extracellular structures in animal and plant cells
  • Describe the structure of cell membranes
  • Explain how membranes function in exchange
  • Describe the types of cell signaling
  • Predict the receptor type based on the ligand
  • Discuss the results of cell signaling
  • Describe the role of phosphorylation in signal transduction
  • Discuss signal amplification
  • Identify several second messenger molecules and their functions
  • Describe some typical results of signal transduction in the cell
  • Describe what a metabolic pathway is, provide examples
  • Discuss the concepts of energy and thermodynamics as they relate to biochemical reactions
  • Describe the 4 major steps that release energy from glucose in the cell
  • Explain the qualities that make ATP an efficient energy-storing molecule
  • Describe the general principles of the regulation of metabolic pathways
  • Discuss how cells transform energy in the absence of oxygen
  • Provide examples of how glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are the ‘backbone’ of metabolism
  • Discuss the two major interdependent steps of photosynthesis
  • Recognize that photosynthesis is, in many ways, the reverse of respiration
  • Describe the first step of how light energy is transformed into chemical energy
  • Describe the components in the cell necessary to carry out the light reactions
  • Explain the process of how light energy results in the formation of NADPH and ATP
  • Discuss the flow of electrons from PSII to PSI
  • Discuss how energy from the light reactions is used to form C-C bonds
  • Describe the three major steps of the carbon reactions, including the inputs and outputs of each
  • Distinguish between the two alternative pathways of carbon fixation
  • Explain why these alternative pathways evolved (identify the selective pressures involved)
  • Detail the differences between division in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Define the cellular structures involved in mitosis and cytokinesis
  • Describe the eukaryotic cell cycle and phases of mitosis
  • Identify the major controlling input for each cell cycle checkpoint
  • Discuss the role of cyclin-dependent kinases
  • Explain the similarities and differences between meiosis and mitosis
  • Describe how meiosis produces greater genetic variation
  • Describe the relationship between meiosis and genetic crosses
  • Analyze the results of a dihybrid cross
  • Describe the conditions under which characters fail to assort independently
  • Explain a test cross and how one is carried out
  • Analyze the results of a test cross and calculate genetic distance